Resilient Smart Grid Control: Two Case Studies
Prof. Henrik Sandberg
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
In this talk, we present two recent case studies in resilient control of smart grid systems. The case studies illustrate how system security and safety can be improved by leveraging on physical models of these cyber-physical systems. We propose attack and fault detection systems as well as resilient control systems customized for these use cases, although their adaptation to general hierarchical networked control systems is also commented upon.
The first use case is a microgrid energy management system (the NIMBUS site in Cork, Ireland). We describe a security information analytics system that can be implemented in the control center to detect suspicious or faulty measurements transmitted over the SCADA system. Customized to this detection system, we propose an optimal virtual sensing scheme that can replace suspicious measurements with estimates that are fed to local control loops to improve their resilience. The performance of the overall system is verified by mathematical analysis and detailed simulations of the NIMBUS site.
The second use case is a low-/medium-voltage smart distribution grid with multiple remote photovoltaic (PV) units. We describe an intrusion detection system that can be implemented in the communication network to detect suspicious set-points and measurements communicated to and from the PV units. In addition, we propose several rule-sets that can be implemented in a decentralized fashion in the PV units to improve their resilience against malicious or dangerous remote commands. Some of the results are illustrated in hardware-in-the-loop simulations at the AIT SmartEST Lab in Vienna, Austria.
This is joint work with the partners in the EU-project SPARKS (https://project-sparks.eu/).
Henrik Sandberg is Professor at the Department of Automatic Control, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. He received the M.Sc. degree in engineering physics and the Ph.D. degree in automatic control from Lund University, Lund, Sweden, in 1999 and 2004, respectively. From 2005 to 2007, he was a Post-Doctoral Scholar at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA. In 2013, he was a visiting scholar at the Laboratory for Information and Decision Systems (LIDS) at MIT, Cambridge, USA. He has also held visiting appointments at the Australian National University and the University of Melbourne, Australia. His current research interests include security of cyber-physical systems, power systems, model reduction, and fundamental limitations in control. Dr. Sandberg was a recipient of the Best Student Paper Award from the IEEE Conference on Decision and Control in 2004 and an Ingvar Carlsson Award from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research in 2007. He is Associate Editor of the IFAC Journal Automatica and the IEEE Transactions on Automatic